Holocaust and Historical Memory

Faculty Instructor: 
Cycle / Level: 
Compulsory / Optional: 
Teaching Period: 
Course Content: 

In this course we’ll examine the history of the genocide of Jews by the Nazi regime, but also the silence around the issue until the 80s, both in historiography and in society in general (in Greece mainly, Europe or USA). We will attempt to reach both the history of the victims, not as numbers but as human beings, and especially the history of the "responsible", just because it is not a private affair of the Jewish people, but a European affair, which marked the conscience of postwar European society. Our goal is to focus on the Greek case in comparison to the events in Europe and the Balkans, through the approach of anti-Semitism in the 30s, the Weimar Republic and the totalitarian regimes, the “Kristallnacht” and the first concentration camps, the reaction of U.S. and the world at the meeting of Evian, the World War II, the gradual opening of the displacements and the ghettos, the relative delay of the implementation of these measures in Greece and the local variations, the universal implementation of the "Final Solution", the importance of the economic aspect, the resistance, the rescue attempts. Therefore, we understand more thoroughly the history of the “Final Solution” in its Greek version, integrating it to the long duration of the Modern Greek and European history, with the national, religious and social contrasts that characterized it. In this way, we have a historical example to comprehend better what was happening in the processes of differentiation and exclusion in that period, and what point can human beings reach, when they are involved in such processes. As Hannah Arendt wrote “Comprehension (in this case) means the unpremeditated, attentive facing up to, and resisting of, reality – whatever it may be”. General Competences Apply knowledge in practice Retrieve, analyse and synthesise data and information, with the use of necessary technologies Adapt to new situations Work autonomously Work in teams Work in an interdisciplinary team Generate new research ideas Appreciate diversity and multiculturality Be critical and self-critical Advance free, creative and causative thinking

Learning Outcomes: 

After completing this course, students will be able to: - Describe and identify historical circumstances within which the Holocaust took place. - Recognize and treat critically the multiple and differing historiographical interpretations of this process. - Learn studying primary historical sources and produce historical arguments through which they'll be able to explain the causes of events, their results and the long-term consequences. - Explain historical continuity and change.


Βιβλιογραφία μαθήματος (Εύδοξος)
Αβδελά Έφη – Βαρών-Βασάρ Οντέτ. (επιμ.), Οι Εβραίοι στον ελληνικό χώρο: Ζητήματα Ιστορίας στη μακρά διάρκεια, Πρακτικά του Α΄ Συμποσίου Ιστορίας 21 - 24 Νοεμβρίου 1991, Γαβριηλίδης, Αθήνα 1995
Αμπατζοπούλου Φραγκίσκη, «Η εικόνα του Εβραίου στην ελληνική πεζογραφία, 1930/1950» στο Χάγκεν Φλάισερ (επιμ.), Η Ελλάδα ’36-’49. Από τη δικτατορία στον εμφύλιο. Τομές και συνέχειες, Αθήνα 2003, σ. 411-420.
Αμπατζοπούλου Φραγκίσκη, Το ολοκαύτωμα στις μαρτυρίες των Ελλήνων Εβραίων, Επίκεντρο, Θεσσαλονίκη 2007.
Andrew Apostolou, “The exception of Salonica: Bystanders and Collaborators in Northern Greece”, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 14/2, 2000, σ. 165-196.
Ασέρ Αριέλλα, Βαρών - Βασάρ Οντέτ, Bowman Steven, Νέοι στη δίνη της κατοχικής Ελλάδας. Ο διωγμός και το ολοκαύτωμα των Εβραίων 1943 – 1944, Κεντρικό Ισραηλιτικό Συμβούλιο Ελλάδος, 2008.
Bankier David (ed.), The Jews are coming back: The return of the Jews to their country of origin after World War II, Ιερουσαλήμ 2005.
Bowman Steven, Η αντίσταση των Εβραίων στην κατοχική Ελλάδα, Κεντρικό Ισραηλιτικό Συμβούλιο Ελλάδος, Αθήνα 2012.
Δώδος Δημοσθένης, Οι Εβραίοι της Θεσσαλονίκης στις εκλογές του ελληνικού κράτους, Σαββάλας, Αθήνα 2005.
Ετμεκτσόγλου Γαβριέλλα, «Το Ολοκαύτωμα των Ελλήνων Εβραίων», Ιστορία της Ελλάδας του 20ού αιώνα. Β΄ Παγκόσμιος Πόλεμος. 1940 – 1945 Κατοχή – Αντίσταση (επιμ. Χρήστος Χατζηιωσήφ, Προκόπης Παπαστράτης), τ. γ1, Βιβλιόραμα, Αθήνα 2007, σ. 175 - 195.
Hilberg Raul, The destruction of the European Jews, Σικάγο 1961. Levi Primo, Εάν αυτό είναι ο άνθρωπος, Άγρα, Αθήνα 1998.
Μαργαρίτης Γιώργος, Ανεπιθύμητοι συμπατριώτες: στοιχεία για την καταστροφή των μειονοτήτων της Ελλάδας: Εβραίοι, Τσάμηδες, Βιβλιόραμα, Αθήνα 2005.
Μαρκέτος Σπύρος, «Έθνος χωρίς εβραίους: απόψεις της ιστοριογραφικής κατασκευής του ελληνισμού», Σύγχρονα Θέματα, 52-53, Ιούλιος Δεκέμβριος 1994, σ. 52-69 και όλο το αφιέρωμα-τεύχος των Σύγχρονων Θεμάτων.
Mazower Mark, Θεσσαλονίκη η πόλη των φαντασμάτων Χριστιανοί, Μουσουλμάνοι και Εβραίοι 1430-1950, Αλεξάνδρεια, Αθήνα 2006.
Mazower Mark, Στην Ελλάδα του Χίτλερ. Η εμπειρία της Κατοχής, Αλεξάνδρεια, Αθήνα 1994. Μπενβενίστε Ρίκα (επιμ.), Οι Εβραίοι της Ελλάδας στην Κατοχή, Βάνιας, Θεσσαλονίκη 1998.
Ο ελληνικός εβραϊσμός, Επιστημονικό συμπόσιο (3 και 4 Απριλίου 1998), Εταιρεία Σπουδών Νεοελληνικού Πολιτισμού και Γενικής Παιδείας, Αθήνα 1999.
Poliakov Leon, Le Bréviaire de la haine. Le IIIe Reich et les Juifs, Calmann-Lévy, Παρίσι 1951; Presses-Pocket, Παρίσι 1993.
Φλάισερ Χάγκεν, Στέμμα και Σβάστικα. Η Ελλάδα της Κατοχής και της Αντίστασης 1941 -1944, τ. α΄, β΄, Αθήνα 1995.

Επιπρόσθετη βιβλιογραφία για μελέτη
Ampatzopoulou Frangiski, The Holocaust testimonies of Greek Jews, Epikentro, Thessaloniki 2007. (Greek)
Ampatzopoulou Frangiski, "The image of the Jew in Greek prose, 1930/1950" in Hagen Fleischer (ed.), The Greece '36-'49. From dictatorship to civil war. Incisions and sequels, Athens 2003, pp. 411-420.
Andrew Apostolou, “The exception of Salonica: Bystanders and Collaborators in Northern Greece”, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 14/2, 2000, p. 165-196.
Avdela Efi - Varon-Vassar Odette. (Ed.), The Jews in the Greek world: Historical issues in long duration, Proceedings of the First Symposium of History from 21 to 24 November 1991 Gavriilidis, Athens 1995
Asher Ariella, Varon-Vassar Odette, Bowman Steven, Young people in the midst of occupied Greece. The persecution and the holocaust of the Jews 1943 - 1944, Central Jewish Council of Greece, 2008.
Bankier David (ed.), The Jews are coming back: The return of the Jews to their country of origin after World War II, Jerousalem 2005.
Bowman Steven, The resistance of the Jews in occupied Greece, Central Jewish Council of Greece, Athens 2012.
Dodos Demosthenes, The Jews of Thessaloniki in the elections of the Greek state, Savalas, Athens 2005.
Etmektsoglou Gabriella, "The Holocaust of the Greek Jews", History of Greece in the 20th century. Second World War. 1940 - 1945 Occupation - Resistance (ed. Chris Hadjiiosif Prokopis Papastratis) v. c1, Vivliorama, Athens 2007, pp. 175-195.
Hilberg Raul, The destruction of the European Jews, Chicago 1961. (English) Levi Primo, If this is a man, Agra, Athens 1998.
Marketos Spiros, "Nation without Jews: aspects of historiographical construction of Hellenism, "Synchrona Themata, 52-53, July December 1994, p 52-69 and all-tribute issue of Contemporary Affairs.
George Margaritis, Unwanted compatriots: evidence for the destruction of the Greek minorities: Jews, Chams, Vivliorama, Athens 2005.
Mazower Mark, Inside Hitler’s Greece, Alexandria, Athens 1994. (Greek) Benveniste Rica (ed.), The Jews of Greece during the occupation, Vanya, Thessaloniki 1998.
Poliakov Leon, Le Bréviaire de la haine. Le IIIe Reich et les Juifs, Calmann-Lévy, Paris 1951; Presses-Pocket, Paris 1993.
Hagen Fleischer, Crown and Swastika. The Greece of Occupation and Resistance in 1941 -1944, v. II, Athens 1995. (Greek)